100 km north of İzmir in the Bakırçay river basin, Bergama
is one of Turkey's oldest civilized settlements and it has
been inhabited from pre-historic times through the Ionic,
Roman and Byzantine civilizations. It has yielded
archeological treasures of which importance is recognized
world-wide.To the southwest of Bergama, Asclepion, an
important health center of the ancient world, the
acropolis founded on top of a steep hill (300 m) and the
Temple of Serapis (Kızıl Avlu) make this area a
fascinating stop for history-loving tourists. The Altar of
Zeus was smuggled to Germany in 1897.
modern day name comes directly from its ancient name,
Pergamum. Known for centuries for its monuments, it was a
great city and served as the centre of Pergamum kingdom.
Its location made it strategic in the Middle Ages and it
was the centre of the Karesioğullari Principality before
it finally became a part of the Ottoman State. The city's
golden era was during the reign of Attalos I and his son
Eumenes II, the time when an acropolis, theatre and other
important projects were completed. It was an important
city in the Roman period. The city experienced many
developments during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD), and
it was adorned with Roman works of art. In the Byzantine
era after the spread of Christianity, Bergama was first
under the influence of the bishopric of Ephesus, and then
became a metropolis.
The Mediterranean Climate dominates the region. Summers
are hot and dry while winters are mild and rainy.